Steel-Concrete Composite Structures: Stability and Design (Stability and strength)
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Xiao and S. Balkema, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. Hong, S. Huber, D. Booth, P. Agarwal, A. Cedeno, G. Malushte, S. Wellman, E. Walz, J. Pakala, P. Selden, K. Bruhl, J. Kurt, E. Epackachi, S. Sener, K. Zhang, K. Lai, Z. Refereed Technical Reports. Lackowski, M.
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Varma, S. Marcu, and R. Structural engineering depends upon a detailed knowledge of applied mechanics , materials science and applied mathematics to understand and predict how structures support and resist self-weight and imposed loads. To apply the knowledge successfully a structural engineer generally requires detailed knowledge of relevant empirical and theoretical design codes , the techniques of structural analysis , as well as some knowledge of the corrosion resistance of the materials and structures, especially when those structures are exposed to the external environment.
Such software may also take into consideration environmental loads, such as from earthquakes and winds. Structural engineers are responsible for engineering design and structural analysis.
Entry-level structural engineers may design the individual structural elements of a structure, such as the beams and columns of a building. More experienced engineers may be responsible for the structural design and integrity of an entire system, such as a building. Structural engineers often specialize in particular types of structures, such as buildings, bridges, pipelines, industrial, tunnels, vehicles, ships, aircraft and spacecraft. Structural engineers who specialize in buildings often specialize in particular construction materials such as concrete, steel, wood, masonry, alloys and composites, and may focus on particular types of buildings such as offices, schools, hospitals, residential, and so forth.
Structural engineering has existed since humans first started to construct their own structures.
It became a more defined and formalized profession with the emergence of the architecture as distinct profession from the engineering during the industrial revolution in the late 19th century. Until then, the architect and the structural engineer were usually one and the same thing — the master builder.
Only with the development of specialized knowledge of structural theories that emerged during the 19th and early 20th centuries, did the professional structural engineers come into existence. The role of a structural engineer today involves a significant understanding of both static and dynamic loading, and the structures that are available to resist them. The complexity of modern structures often requires a great deal of creativity from the engineer in order to ensure the structures support and resist the loads they are subjected to.
A structural engineer will typically have a four or five year undergraduate degree, followed by a minimum of three years of professional practice before being considered fully qualified. Structural engineers are licensed or accredited by different learned societies and regulatory bodies around the world for example, the Institution of Structural Engineers in the UK.
Structural building engineering includes all structural engineering related to the design of buildings. It is a branch of structural engineering closely affiliated with architecture. Structural building engineering is primarily driven by the creative manipulation of materials and forms and the underlying mathematical and scientific ideas to achieve an end which fulfills its functional requirements and is structurally safe when subjected to all the loads it could reasonably be expected to experience.
This is subtly different from architectural design, which is driven by the creative manipulation of materials and forms, mass, space, volume, texture and light to achieve an end which is aesthetic, functional and often artistic. The architect is usually the lead designer on buildings, with a structural engineer employed as a sub-consultant. The degree to which each discipline actually leads the design depends heavily on the type of structure.
Many structures are structurally simple and led by architecture, such as multi-storey office buildings and housing, while other structures, such as tensile structures , shells and gridshells are heavily dependent on their form for their strength, and the engineer may have a more significant influence on the form, and hence much of the aesthetic, than the architect.
The structural design for a building must ensure that the building is able to stand up safely, able to function without excessive deflections or movements which may cause fatigue of structural elements, cracking or failure of fixtures, fittings or partitions, or discomfort for occupants.
It must account for movements and forces due to temperature, creep , cracking and imposed loads. It must also ensure that the design is practically buildable within acceptable manufacturing tolerances of the materials. It must allow the architecture to work, and the building services to fit within the building and function air conditioning, ventilation, smoke extract, electrics, lighting etc.
The structural design of a modern building can be extremely complex, and often requires a large team to complete. Earthquake engineering structures are those engineered to withstand earthquakes. The main objectives of earthquake engineering are to understand the interaction of structures with the shaking ground, foresee the consequences of possible earthquakes, and design and construct the structures to perform during an earthquake.
Earthquake-proof structures are not necessarily extremely strong like the El Castillo pyramid at Chichen Itza shown above.
STEEL-CONCRETE COMPOSITE COLUMNS
One important tool of earthquake engineering is base isolation , which allows the base of a structure to move freely with the ground. Civil structural engineering includes all structural engineering related to the built environment. It includes:. The structural engineer is the lead designer on these structures, and often the sole designer. In the design of structures such as these, structural safety is of paramount importance in the UK, designs for dams, nuclear power stations and bridges must be signed off by a chartered engineer. Civil engineering structures are often subjected to very extreme forces, such as large variations in temperature, dynamic loads such as waves or traffic, or high pressures from water or compressed gases.
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They are also often constructed in corrosive environments, such as at sea, in industrial facilities or below ground. The principles of structural engineering are applicable to variety of mechanical moveable structures. The design of static structures assumes they always have the same geometry in fact, so-called static structures can move significantly, and structural engineering design must take this into account where necessary , but the design of moveable or moving structures must account for fatigue , variation in the method in which load is resisted and significant deflections of structures.
The forces which parts of a machine are subjected to can vary significantly, and can do so at a great rate. The forces which a boat or aircraft are subjected to vary enormously and will do so thousands of times over the structure's lifetime.
Short Courses | Structural Stability Research Council
The structural design must ensure that such structures are able to endure such loading for their entire design life without failing. Aerospace structures typically consist of thin plates with stiffeners for the external surfaces, bulkheads and frames to support the shape and fasteners such as welds, rivets, screws and bolts to hold the components together. A nanostructure is an object of intermediate size between molecular and microscopic micrometer-sized structures.
In describing nanostructures it is necessary to differentiate between the number of dimensions on the nanoscale. Nanotextured surfaces have one dimension on the nanoscale, i. Nanotubes have two dimensions on the nanoscale, i. Finally, spherical nanoparticles have three dimensions on the nanoscale, i. The terms nanoparticles and ultrafine particles UFP often are used synonymously although UFP can reach into the micrometre range. The term 'nanostructure' is often used when referring to magnetic technology. Medical equipment also known as armamentarium is designed to aid in the diagnosis, monitoring or treatment of medical conditions.
This module provides students with fundamental approaches in designing structural steel-concrete components and buildings. Students will acquire fundamental knowledge and skills to perform structural design for composite beams, slabs, columns, joints, multi-storey buildings. This enables the students to conceive a safe and economical structural system. The module is targeted at MSC civil engineering students and those with a keen interest on structural design. J Y Richard Liew.