Scholarship Mathematics, Volume 2: Geometry

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Then comes the 'setting-out', which gives the figure and denotes particular geometrical objects by letters.

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Next comes the 'definition' or 'specification', which restates the enunciation in terms of the particular figure. Then the 'construction' or 'machinery' follows. Here, the original figure is extended to forward the proof. Then, the 'proof' itself follows. Finally, the 'conclusion' connects the proof to the enunciation by stating the specific conclusions drawn in the proof, in the general terms of the enunciation. No indication is given of the method of reasoning that led to the result, although the Data does provide instruction about how to approach the types of problems encountered in the first four books of the Elements.

However, Euclid's original proof of this proposition, is general, valid, and does not depend on the figure used as an example to illustrate one given configuration. Euclid's list of axioms in the Elements was not exhaustive, but represented the principles that were the most important.

His proofs often invoke axiomatic notions which were not originally presented in his list of axioms.

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Later editors have interpolated Euclid's implicit axiomatic assumptions in the list of formal axioms. For example, in the first construction of Book 1, Euclid used a premise that was neither postulated nor proved: that two circles with centers at the distance of their radius will intersect in two points. If superposition is to be considered a valid method of geometric proof, all of geometry would be full of such proofs. For example, propositions I.

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Mathematician and historian W. Rouse Ball put the criticisms in perspective, remarking that "the fact that for two thousand years [the Elements ] was the usual text-book on the subject raises a strong presumption that it is not unsuitable for that purpose. It was not uncommon in ancient time to attribute to celebrated authors works that were not written by them. The book continues Euclid's comparison of regular solids inscribed in spheres, with the chief result being that the ratio of the surfaces of the dodecahedron and icosahedron inscribed in the same sphere is the same as the ratio of their volumes, the ratio being.

This book covers topics such as counting the number of edges and solid angles in the regular solids, and finding the measure of dihedral angles of faces that meet at an edge. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Mathematical treatise by Euclid. Perhaps no book other than the Bible can boast so many editions, and certainly no mathematical work has had an influence comparable with that of Euclid's Elements ".


There, the Elements became the foundation of mathematical education. More than editions of the Elements are known. In all probability, it is, next to the Bible , the most widely spread book in the civilization of the Western world. It is thought that this book may have been composed by Hypsicles on the basis of a treatise now lost by Apollonius comparing the dodecahedron and icosahedron. This book also deals with the regular solids, counting the number of edges and solid angles in the solids, and finding the measures of the dihedral angles of faces meeting at an edge.

Reynolds and Nigel G. Wilson, Scribes and Scholars 2nd. Mathematics

Oxford, p. Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on 10 June Retrieved 29 April Archived from the original on 22 June Alexanderson, Gerald L. A Short Account of the History of Mathematics 4th ed. Dover Publications. Boyer, Carl B. A History of Mathematics Second ed. The Historical Roots of Elementary Mathematics.

Busard, H. Campanus of Novara and Euclid's Elements. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag. Callahan, Daniel; Casey, John Euclid's "Elements" Redux. Dodgson, Charles L. Euclid and His Modern Rivals. Cambridge University Press. Hartshorne, Robin Geometry: Euclid and Beyond 2nd ed.

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New York, NY : Springer. Heath, Thomas L. The Thirteen Books of Euclid's Elements 2nd ed. Original publication: Cambridge University Press, ] ed. New York: Dover Publications. Heath's authoritative translation plus extensive historical research and detailed commentary throughout the text.

A Manual of Greek Mathematics. Ketcham, Henry The Life of Abraham Lincoln. New York: Perkins Book Company. Nasir al-Din al-Tusi Russell, Bertrand History of Western Philosophy: Collectors Edition. Sarma, K. Selin, Helaine ed. Encyclopaedia of the history of science, technology, and medicine in non-western cultures.

Toussaint, Godfried They examine the nature of everyday life during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries — the finances and administration of the colleges, their architecture, and the individuals who lived and worked in them. This is the definitive study of the medieval University of Oxford and a major contribution to scholarship. Keywords: Oxford University , theology , mathematics , philosophy , law , medicine , late Middle Ages , colleges , administration , architecture.

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Scholarship Mathematics (Volume 2: Geometry)

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Evans Abstract The History of the University of Oxford will be an authoritative and comprehensive history of one of Britain's most important and influential institutions. More The History of the University of Oxford will be an authoritative and comprehensive history of one of Britain's most important and influential institutions. Authors Affiliations are at time of print publication.